Municipal candidates respond to the RTH survey asking them about matters of sustainable development: climate change, peak oil, sprawl, transportation, and aerotropolis.
By RTH Staff
Published November 08, 2006
1. Climate Change - City Council should advance a program whereby they would encourage energy production and savings by every household using wind generators, solar power water heaters and solar cell generators. The City should participate in these programs themselves to show the citizens it can and has to be done. Excess hydro could be sold back to the grid.
2. Peak Oil - Every method available to promote the generation of energy by all sources must be initiated now or A.S.A.P.
3. Sprawl - Council will encourage the reclamation of the hundreds of acres within city boundaries that need to be reclaimed and re-established on the tax base. To do this I would use tax incentives with the landowners.
4. Transportation - All approaches to transportation should be explored including recreational and especially access to points of interest in the city for tourists and others.
5. Aerotropolis - No. We feel the Aerotropolis is premature but should be studied.
1. Climate Change - Hamilton has set up a green energy office to assess our use of energy and ways of reducing what we consume. We have also studied an anti idling bylaw, which I would support; as well as converting our fleet to hybrid vehicles (I drive one myself); we are also looking at increasing our partnerships in the Community energy program for the city; we as a Council endorsed the previous federal government's targets as per the Kyoto accord...it is a shame that the current government scrapped the program.
2. Peak Oil - We commissioned a study on Peak Oil and the city's role. Staff is studying its implementation now. The study indicated that we should explore energy from waste systems and we are doing that. As well, our Grids plan calls for greater intensification downtown as well as creating new communities, if required, which correspond to smart growth principles, including public transit ridership for these developments.
We are also updating our bus fleet, keeping fares low to encourage ridership. We are participating with the Port Authority on Highway H2O water transport to get trucks off the road. I want to see Via Rail back in Hamilton as well as GO Transit expansion to McMaster, downtown and eastward.
3. Sprawl - We are intensifying according to provincial mandate. We have adopted a nodes and corridors development intensification strategy. See #2 above. Also, there have been no new urban boundary expansions for residential purposes in the last three years.
4. Transportation - See #2 above. We need to step that up and use gas tax monies for that purpose.
5. Yes...I support it; we cannot afford to let more businesses go outside of the city (Brantford, Halton).
Since 82 percent of total human-made greenhouse gas emissions come from energy use and we are in a declining energy state with ever increasing prices I think question 1 and 2 should go hand in hand to look for better, energy sources. I have looked into many options. A church in the Meadowlands is heated by solar cords in the ground. It cost more to install but in five years will have paid for itself. Used vegetable oil for vehicles. Wind power. Water heated boilers. There are so many different things we need to look into.
1. Climate Change - City Council should be helping to reduce greenhouse gases in any and all ways we can. Since 82 percent of total human-made greenhouse gas emissions come from energy use and we are in a declining energy state with ever increasing prices I think question 1 and 2 should go hand in hand to look for better, energy sources.
I have looked into many options. A church in the Meadowlands is heated by solar cords in the ground. It cost more to install but in five years will have paid for itself. Used vegetable oil for vehicles. Wind power. Water heated boilers. There are so many different things we need to look into.
2. Peak Oil - City Council should be taking a proactive approach to the declining energy availability and looking into ways to convert to other energy sources and becoming more energy efficient in all areas.
3. Sprawl - I believe suburban sprawl needs to be brought to a halt. We need to re-examine what the city can realistically handle in regards to our current infrastructure. Our current water and sewage capacity on some days reaches its maximum. I heard councillor Dave Braden express concerns on the need to invest $100 million a year to sustain our current assets and the city isn't even doing that. Our aging infrastructure needs some major maintenance/replacement. Out of necessity this has to be a priority. We can't continue to add new when we are not looking after the present adequately.
4. Transportation - City Council does need to promote and accommodate more and better transportation choices. The challenge I see is that we are so far in debt adding any additional capital projects will increase already high property taxes. Every 5.1 million dollars over the current budget puts a 1 percent increase in property taxes. We need to reduce debt so we can move forward on projects such as promoting transportation choices.
5. Aerotropolis - As it is now, 'no.' Again, we can't afford any new capital projects and I don't think this is the best thought-out plan.
1. Climate Change - City Council shouldn't be trying to do anything to reduce emissions per se. This is a matter for the United Nations. However, emissions generally follow energy usage, and energy costs, and City Council should be trying to reduce costs, including energy costs, in all of its activities on an ongoing basis. This is just good management, and should reduce emissions. Council should also be helping cut through the red tape for citizen-led conservation efforts.
Areas worthy of special focus might include district heating, community geothermal projects and carpooling lots - i.e. conservation projects that cannot be readily implemented by any individual ratepayer. As well, Council should be focusing its efforts on mass transit. This is an area where massive amounts of energy and taxpayer money can be saved, if Council has the guts and vision to build a viable network. (Individual taxpayers cannot build a mass transit system on their own.) Where possible, rail should be used, to increase energy efficiency. Similarly, where possible, grid-linked electrical propulsion should also be used, for energy efficiency and emission control reasons.
2. Peak Oil - Nothing special. As indicated above, City Council should be trying to reduce energy costs for itself and for its citizens wherever possible, as a matter of course. Peak oil means that the price of energy will increase substantially in the future, and council should have these likely future increases in mind when it does the cost-benefit analysis regarding conservation investments.
3. Sprawl - The trite answer would be "arrest it", but I am not sure that City Council has the moral authority to dictate the way in which people live. If people wish to live in subdivisions, who are we to deny them? However, I think City Council needs to ensure that, through its development charges, it recovers not only its costs associated with construction, but also with future servicing, keeping in mind that the tax burden of any particular housing type may not reflect the actual future servicing costs associated with that lifestyle.
Council also needs to monitor the market, to ensure that builders are meeting the desires of the population, and that those who wish to live in pedestrian-friendly, high-density, transit-serviced communities can find same. (We know that there is ample choice for those who wish to live in subdivision tract housing). If the real costs of development are passed on to the residents, either through the development charge mechanism or through realty taxes, I think it would be unlikely for sprawl to continue, but if sprawl still resulted, I am not sure I would care or that the City should.
4. Transportation - Planning better, and keeping in mind that planning decisions drive transportation choice. Good planning decisions now will facilitate the future construction of bicycle paths, rail lines and dedicated bus routes, and will permit the future delineation of neighbourhoods in which light electric vehicles can travel. Haphazard development, which has been the norm, will ensure that these transportation choices will never be economic/available for Hamiltonians.
5. Aerotropolis - I do not support the Aerotropolis project. A drive around Pearson Airport is ample proof that close proximity to an airport is of little importance to most businesses ( I sure as heck wouldn't want my business located in the flight path of a 747) and in my view, the whole "Aerotropolis" model is fundamentally flawed, even without factoring in "peak oil". I would vastly prefer that the underutilized industrial land already on hand in the city be developed to its potential.
That being said, I am certainly in favor of job creation, and would be prepared to support the development of these lands if it paid for itself or if the landowners affected were prepared to provide guarantees in terms of jobs created. I would be infuriated if the city were to expend substantial resources servicing the Aerotropolis lands, only to see a bunch of warehouses constructed, since such structures have low assessments and support few jobs. (Indeed, I am advised that some of the new development in the GTA that Hamilton is "missing out on" consists of "dark" warehouses, which have no staff at all - just a bunch of computer-driven robots driving through the darkness and picking out orders. I'd choose farmland over that any time.)
1. Climate Change - Promote and educate citizens on converting to alternative fuels such as ethanol, natural gas, propane, hydrogen, biodiesel, electricity, methanol, and p-series fuels. These fuels are being used worldwide in a variety of vehicle applications and have positive environmental impacts.
2. Peak Oil - Using these alternative fuels in vehicles can generally reduce harmful pollutants and exhaust emissions. In addition, most of these fuels can be domestically produced and derived from renewable sources. This is an opportunity for a new industry for the city of Hamilton and would create much needed employment.
3. Sprawl - Sprawl is a pattern and pace of land development in which the rate of land consumed for urban purposes exceeds the rate of population growth and which results in an inefficient and consumptive use of land and its associated resources.
Brownfields are real property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant. Cleaning up and reinvesting in these properties takes development pressures off of undeveloped, open land, and both improves and protects the environment. Many areas of Hamilton have been neglected and abandoned. These sites should be developed before considering suburban sprawl.
4. Transportation - Unfortunately the past and present City Council have deterred ridership on buses mainly by allowing fares to increase and not introducing mini buses that are efficient and could run out in the rural areas, side streets and off hours. Reducing fares is primary to attract ridership second, accommodating the rural areas by running more scheduled routs and in the city, bringing buses closer to communities which walking distance to bus stops deters rider ship and promotes citizens to use their cars.
5. Aerotropolis - Currently Hamilton Wentworth Region dose not offer a sustainable commercial environment to support commitment from cargo and passenger carriers. This is evident by the number of carriers that have abandon the airport completely or have drastically reduced its business here. The city is in billions of dollars in repairs to its infrastructure and the citizens are over taxed and are not in a position to support this endeavourer at this time.
1. Climate Change - This a key responsibility for City Council and several months back we received a phase one staff report encompassing an inventory of municipal GHG sources. The next step, due in late winter 2007, is a Climate Change Plan for the City with specific GHG reduction actions.
In this we are working with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) and their GHG program. With responsibilities in land use (ie. no sprawl and more intensification), our own activities (see our Green Fleet program, energy conservation plan, and efforts to achieve LEED certification for city facilities), and other responsibilities, the City of Hamilton has a lead role in local GHG reduction activities.
2. Peak Oil - I have asked for a Peak Oil phase two report outlining ways we are responding to the first report's call for a 75 percent reduction in energy use and use of renewable sources for the rest. The Phase 2 report will take all of the ideas further including themeing an economic development cluster on attracting energy companies to Hamilton, through committing to a real focus on energy reduction/alternatives corporately. (Note that Cleanfield Energy is now here with their vertical access wind turbines, with 150 turbines due to be placed atop City buildings – see electmchattie.ca for a quote from their President, Tony Verelli).
I'd also like to see a serious examination of reinstalling trolley buses/streetcars to Hamilton streets. My Peak Oil motion also called for City buildings to move to LEED status with green roofs, and preparation of policies to encourage other building owners across the city to follow suit. Lastly I asked for a geothermal system to be designed for the soon-to-be-established Glanbrook Business Park using the European Eco-park style of development.
3. Sprawl - The GRIDS 30 year growth strategy is themed on nodes and corridors style development and embraces the Province's Places to Grow intensification targets. We need to set ambitious targets and implement them through a dedicated Internsification and Brownfields Office at the City (seconded Councillor Collins' motion on that) – this is in the 2007 budget proposals.
Land use planning is the most important thing that cities do and Hamilton has a key role in this. We must also develop policies (through development charges incentives for example) to aencourage intensification. The goal is to push out any sort of urban boundary expansion far into the future.
4. Transportation - The City's new Master Transportation Strategy does emphasis transit, pedestrianism and cycling. I moved a motion on establishing a Pedestrian Committee (to go along with our cycling committee and the Transit Steering Committee which I chair) and there is a kick-off workshop on this, November 20.
Through repeated requests, the Public Works dept has identified a full-time Cycling Coordinator position in the 2007 budget. We must add bike racks to buses, and move quickly to establish a full bus rapid transit system (starting with a full day Bee-Line, proposed for the '07 budget).
5. Aerotropolis - I don't support it in its current form, as it is designed to eliminate some 2-3,000 acres of farmland. My focus is on re-developing brownfields sites and promoting quality jobs in small businesses that don't require large expanses of land. There may be room for an airport business park but it should be scoped back to lands along the new Hwy 6.
1. Climate Change - Advertising and promoting city buses and getting more GO Trains to stop on more occasions and longer days. Getting unions to quit asking for car allowances and parking passes and getting City bus passes instead. We need their help in not only using these services but promoting these services.
2. Peak Oil - same as #1.
3. Sprawl - We need it stopped immediately until we replace the existing system. Hamilton has major problems and we are not doing anything about it.
4. Transportation - same as #1.
5. Aerotropolis - No. It needs a lot of work before being implemented. We must stop throwing money out the window.
1. Climate Change - Advocate reduce or stop idling. Encourage to keep lawn grass 2 inches higher than right now average level to create more oxygen. Promote public transit, make more routines and connection effective. Educate people keep health physical condition to avoid unnecessary air conditioner or heater.
2. Peak Oil - Educate public awareness about how should we conservatively treat energy today. Encourage alternative consume energy way. Air condition in summer time of city hall is too cold for me. But winter, is too hot.
3. Sprawl - Slow down now. We cannot afford aimless growth. Find the balance between environment and development.
4. Transportation - Make more routine, timetable more reasonable, more shifts and high responsible attitude operators. Every complaint has to be solved and response within certain time period. Get connect with Go transit, even Via Rail.
5. Aerotropolis - Yes, that is a balance strategy of economy. That area can build international shopping mall since we have airport. Lots work can be done there and bring our employment more healthier ratio.
1. Climate Change - Continue to work with industry, other levels of government and the public to enhance awareness of these issues and to collaborate on made-in-Hamilton solutions.
2. Peak Oil - As with question 1, continue to work with other levels of government, industry and the public sector on conservation and gradual migration to other sources of renewable energy.
3. Sprawl - Furthering insight into ways to bring urban renewal to depressed areas within the inner city core. Partner with developers and school boards, social service and not-for-profit agencies, among others, to ensure essential infrastructure is part of suburban planning prior to any development. We need to ensure that infrastructure such as schools and transit services are available to homeowners from the outset. Additionally, we need to ensure other existing infrastructure is capable of managing the integration of newer systems such as water and wastewater management.
4. Transportation - Continue to lobby government to relax rules for use of gas tax revenues to allow the city to use these resources for ongoing operation costs of new systems introduced into outlying areas. Consider rapid transit systems that take people to and from their destinations quicker as a means to encourage usage.
Consider improved services off main road areas to get commuters to and from their departure and destinations without inconvenience as another means to encourage usage. More and easier transfer point systems, payment systems such as smart cards, and integration with systems of adjoining municipalities to make it easier to travel between municipalities. And, all these systems need to be accessible to seniors and people with disabilities, among other groups with particular needs.
5. Aerotropolis - I would support a plan that would help to bring industry to Hamilton, grow the employment and tax base and help to make Hamilton a continued leader in industry and development in the shadows of the GTA. Any system that helps Hamilton to grow in these areas will have definite spin-off for tourism, research, education and other forms of economic development.
1. Climate Change - An enforceable idling by-law not full of loop-holes like the nonsense we have now. Start with staff, they get caught by the public, dock their pay.
2. Peak Oil - 50 years from now I'll be dead. Get a smart car fleet for staff who need cars is a good start. Change the focus from Aerotropolis pipe-dreams to economic development and brownfield development, build from within, revitalize and renew.
3. Sprawl - Raise development charges high enough to discourage sprawl and provide incentives for alternate growth, like brownfields and rehabilitation of decaying neighborhoods.
4. Transportation - Fully subsidize the HSR, make it free. But an operational review and economy of scale saving are necessary to cut out the overlap first. Bring all aspects of transportation, including disabled transit, into one structure, and millions can be saved. Fire Don Hull fast. The guy's an Albatross, costs more than he saves.
5. Aerotropolis - I think it's a bad idea, but fort different reasons than most. The airport should be run by us before developing its potential, otherwise another ten or 20 million will go to their shareholders instead of taking the pressure off the property tax base. That airport could lower taxes if we had the coin it produced for the private consortium that runs it. Millions for them, but only $50,000 for the taxpayer. LOL.
1. Climate Change - I would encourage the completion of a municipal greenhouse gas inventory. We need to establish a base from which we can assess success. Continue to change the city fleet over to cleaner burning engines, i.e. hybrid vehicles, electric, ethanol and propane. Adopt an anti-idling by-law.
2. Peak Oil - I would advocate that we begin developing green energy generation for municipal centres, i.e. roof wind generators and solar panels. Our municipal centres should become green centres.
3. Sprawl - Set an urban boundary and stick to it. Stop the hopscotch style of development planning.
4. Transportation - We need to make real improvements to our public transit system. Taking transit should be a convenient alternative to the car and not an inconvenience.
5. Aerotropolis - We do need the employment lands. But we MUST ensure that the lands are being developed for employment uses only. There should be a 25 year moratorium on any residential rezoning applications. We need to ensure that the sewerage system has the capacity to handle this development. Further, because of the size and cost, the development should be divided into three sectors and phased in over the next 15 years.
1. Climate Change - The number one solution is to raise the ridership on public transportation. This can be achieved if public transit becomes effective: passenger-friendly and meets the passengers' needs. A second goal should be to limit idling of all vehicles throughout the city and enhanced traffic management. Third, encourage car-pooling, promotion of cycling to work as an option, supported with bike racks on buses, and more bike paths.
2. Peak Oil - Further to number 1 responses: Use only Energy Star lights, appliances and equipment. Turn off lights and lower heating in unoccupied public and private buildings. Windmill Power Generation is very promising and environmentally aligned. The mountain brow and along the lakeshore are potenial sites.
3. Sprawl - The Economic Development Department needs new blood, new approaches and better funding. There needs to be a strong promotion of cleaning up and using brownfields. Clean up the downtown of Hamilton. Infill in Hamilton core with condos and businesses.
4. Transportation - The whole HSR system needs to be revamped. Many other cities have turned this around. See no. 1 above. The community bus option would be very beneficial to the residents of Ancaster, Waterdown etc. Cycling can also play into this.
5. Aerotropolis - This venture is far too speculative and political. Hamilton needs new jobs in Hamilton. Sprawling, windswept industrial parks that take hours to get to by bus will likely not provide vast new employment opportunities. Hamilton needs jobs where the people live. This is not the priority Hamilton needs right now.
1. Climate Change - City should be committed to alternate energy, whenever possible and to reduce fossil fuels. Reduce the number of buses going up and down the mountain access empty. Capture energy from waste, etc.
2. Peak Oil - Same as #1.
3. Sprawl - Delay urban boundary expansion.
4. Transportation - Make bus routes more user friendly (less time to get across town) Add bus routes where there is interest. Lobby provincial government for our share of funding and services (add Go Train Stop somewhere along Brantford/Burlington corridor to relieve pressure of traffic going down escarpment to Aldershot station
5. Aerotropolis - There will eventually be expansion and business opportunity for industrial land at the Airport. It is doubtful that City's current projections are realistic. The ideal of fast tracking development for job creation was a mistake. It should not become a priority ahead of the downtown and brownfield site redevelopment. Full public consultation is needed and the new 5-10 year plan seems reasonable after satisfying GRIDS and Vision 2020 (Why does the city bother doing studies, when they completely disregard the recommendations and timelines?).
1. Climate Change - Conduct a current carbon count and establish what our city's emissions are right now. Car emissions are big priority so establish as many incentives as possible for residents to use public transit – eg offer free bus rides on smog days (as Windsor has). Encourage companies in our city to buy bus and public transit passes for their employees.
Support organizations such as Green Venture & Environment Hamilton to continue public education programs. Give city staff employees (including councillors) bus passes. Gradually phase out diesel powered buses in favour of hybrids. Introduce an anti-idling by-law. Restrict the use of gas-powered leaf blowers & lawn mowers. Declare a moratorium on new drive-thrus.
2. Peak Oil - Explore alternative energy sources such as wind & solar power. We are the city of waterfalls, can we harness water power here? Re-look at Richard Gilbert's report and recommendations made to council, which suggest making Hamilton the Electric City again (which includes bringing back electric trams).
3. Sprawl - Put a moratorium on sprawl – halt it now! We have the highest rate of greenfield development in the Golden Horseshoe. Sprawl means we lose agricultural land that we need to grow our food, and the cost to supply water, sewers & roads to support this development should not be borne by taxpayers.
The Province would support us if we decided to develop our brownfields and infill instead. There are plenty of empty buildings in Hamilton that could be developed instead (and Loft designers who have proved this could work). We need mixed use development where people can live, work and play within a walking distance of their home. Let's really take GRIDS (Growth Related Integrated Development Strategy) seriously and use it to guide us as we grow.
4. Transportation - Allocate more money to HSR to update bus routes and improve frequency of routes. We need surveys to find out where people need to travel to on a regular basis. Seattle offers free bus rides in its city, and that would be an ideal goal for Hamilton. We have a high rate of commuters, many of whom travel to Burlington and Toronto. We need to push for more train stations in the long term, and in the short term, a good bus service to existing train station would de-clog our highways. We need consistent and connecting bike lanes across the city.
5. Aerotropolis - No, I do not support this plan. The 'Aerotropolis' plan would urbanize 2700 acres of agricultural land around Hamilton airport. I think the plan is ill-conceived. This is a perfect example of city council thinking backwards. It found a piece of land, and asked "What shall we do with it?" instead of defining "What do we want to do?" and then asking where's the best place to put this?"
Aerotropolis hopes attract new industrial development to Hamilton, and the plan promises to create 1500 new jobs. We have no company signed up, and council cannot give us any evidence that research has been done. So it's hard to see where the 1500 figure came from.
The plan is not a done deal – the local citizens group Hamiltonians for Progressive Development and the provincial government took it to the Ontario Municipal Board, and the plan needs to return to city council for debate and approval before the urban boundary can be extended for the project to go ahead.
Aerotropolis is supposed to be the centrepiece of the city's Growth Related Integrated Development Strategy (GRIDS), which council adopted in September 2003. GRIDS has 9 guiding principles for the future growth of Hamilton and this includes concentrating new development within existing built-up areas and within a firm urban boundary – and expand transportation options that encourage travel by foot, bike and transit.
City staff put together a report on Aerotropolis and found the plan contradicts nearly all the principles that council approved for Hamilton's future. For example, it does not concentrate new development in existing built up areas; instead, it's going to cost at least $100 million of taxpayers' money to build service infrastructure – water and sewer mains etc. There will also be the cost of new roads.
We have plenty of other opportunities on which to build an economic plan, including plenty of brownfields, empty buildings in east end and downtown, and old bank buildings.
Why is Mac moving to Burlington? Hamilton needs to ask what it can do to retain its current large employers here, and attract new businesses. Degroote & Mac students are turning up at conferences in Waterloo, which actively brings together Wilfrid Laurier University, financiers, lawyers and entrepreneurs, encouraging new companies to base themselves in Waterloo. We could have McMaster & Mohawk work together to build teams of entrepreneurs in Hamilton. We could specialise in medical devices, as Hamilton is the leader in heart surgery.
Knowledge transfer – we have the best social services, we could capitalize by becoming a teaching centre for social service agencies.
1. Climate Change - Continue to use alternative fuel sources for city vehicles where practical, including hybrid gas/electric cars. Make arrangements for reduced purchase cost with trade off of detailed tracking of fuel efficiency, servicing etc.
Look not just at purchase price of vehicles/equipment but cost of use and environmental impact over the lifetime of the equipment. Eliminate non-essential use of gasoline powered equipment (lawnmowers etc.) during periods of elevated air quality readings.
Provide free public transit on smog alert days.
2. Peak Oil - Evaluate efficiency of current public transit system – re-design routes, frequency and/or employ smaller buses where suitable. Use best practices to determine where city vehicles should be stored. E.g. is it really a good idea to have all of the garbage trucks parked in the same place? Not only is there non-productive manpower in driving them to the collection areas but also increases fuel costs as well as additional wear and tear on vehicles.
Investigate more thoroughly hybrid fuels or fuels from non-traditional sources – ethanol – by-products of sludge processing.
3. Sprawl - It is essential that we stop spreading out, at least until after downtown urban renewal is under control. Place limitations/restrictions, or possibly even a moratorium on greenfield development. Create a specified downtown urban renewal zone.
Offer incentives to developers to build/rebuild within this zone or other brownfield sites. Incentives could include: streamlined development process, specialized planning, heritage or construction expertise, low cost/no interest loans (worded in such a manner that the city is fully protected in the event of non-performance). Amount of city assistance could also be tied to degree of site rehabilitation, job creation, long term tax generation etc.
Look to locations such as O&K site in Dundas as to what can be accomplished on brownfield sites (be aware of likelihood of increased environmental concerns – develop appropriate procedures for dealing with them).
4. Transportation - As has been mentioned, carry out thorough evaluation of public transit – locations, times, frequency of service, type and size of busses etc. Ridership will increase if the service better matches the requirements of those who use it. Continue to construct bicycle lanes and other bicycle facilities where warranted, but be careful not to create an illusion of safety which may not exist.
5. Aerotropolis - There is no need at this time to turn farmland into industrial/commercial applications – vacant industrial land already exists at various locations throughout the city. When the downtown urban renewal and brownfield development plans indicated above have been successfully completed, and there is still a demonstrated need, then it may be appropriate to develop near the airport but in blocks of no more than 100 hectares, enough for at least 100 small to medium sized businesses.
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